Chapter 5-5-1: The Participle
A participle is an adjective formed from a verb. To make a present participle, you add "-ing" to the verb, sometimes doubling the final consonant:
"think" becomes "thinking"
"fall" becomes "falling"
"run" becomes "running"
Observe that an "n" got added to "running" and the "e" disappeared in "living." You can see that there are some rules on how to form the present participle.
Rules for Creating the Past Participle
The second type of participle, the past participle, is a little more complicated, since not all verbs form the past tense regularly. The following are all past participles:
the sunken ship
a ruined city
a misspelled word
Note that only transitive verbs can use their past participles as adjectives, and that unlike other verbals, past participles do not take objects (unless they are part of a compound verb).